Long-grain - This is the most common rice available. It is more soft than sticky.
Medium-grain - Soft texture with a stronger flavor.
Short-grain - Is a stickier rice with a stronger, sweeter flavor.
Rice can be purchased in several forms (differing by amount of processing):
Brown - Has a nutty flavor. Still has the hull intact and consequently goes rancid more quickly because of the oils in the grain. Stores well for only 6 months under average conditions.3 Can extend the shelf-life by storing in the fridge. 1
White - Hull and outer layers have been removed. Rice is typically enriched to re-add the lost nutrients, though it remains inferior nutritionally. It stores well in ideal conditions for 30 years or more.8
There are over 100,000 varieties/flavors of rice including:
Basmati - It is a variety of long grain rice. You can purchase either a white or brown version.6 It is typically produced in India and Pakistan.
Jasmine - This is also a long grain rice. You might have this rice served with Thai food.
Calrose - A medium grain rice developed in California. It is common to find this rice in Hawaii or the South Pacific.
Wild rice is not actually a rice, but is harvested from grasses similar in genus to rice.
Generally, rice is reconstituted by bringing 2 parts water to a boil and adding one part rice, covering and lowering heat to a simmer for 20 to 30 minutes. Salt and oil/butter can be added with the rice or after cooking. Quick rice has cooking requirements that are different.
White rice is a sure bet for 30+ years of longer-term storage in ideal conditions. All varieties would be appropriate for inclusion in your three-month supply.
Personal note: I recently purchased some aged basmati rice. I thoroughly inspected the packaging, trying to determine whether the rice was white or brown. I am unfamiliar enough with this rice that I couldn't tell and the package did not indicate. So, I'm am including the basmati rice as part of my three-month supply meals and not my longer-term storage.